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Water and Enviroment Lab

The department of water and Environment is divided into three units:-

  • Chemical and physical analysis unit.

  • Monitoring reading for Environment unit.

  • Microbiology unit:

    • Chemical and biological analysis of water samples the need to support the research, irrigation water analysis activates, environment research.

    • Studying environment and supporter project both internal and external, to increase knowledge of water sources.

Water Testing

Water is one of the most important & precious natural resources available to the living organisms on earth. It is precious because it is synonymous with ‘Life’ on earth. Its importance is manifold; the significant role being played by it is in the life saving process or survival involving every living organism on this planet, be it plants, animals, fish & human beings. The existence & availability of Water on our planet occurs through the ‘Water Cycle’ (or the Hydrologic Cycle), which explains all the dynamic processes involving Water.

The two important aspects regarding Water in the contemporary world are its Quantity & Quality. Unfortunately, both these aspects have become growing concerns for the entire world. Various anthropogenic adverse activities, including population boom, have led to shortages in the supply of Water in various parts of the globe.

Water pollutes through regular channels like sewerage system, industrial effluents etc. Which led to the infiltration of industrial effluents, municipal sewage etc. contaminates the ground water and cause Water pollution. In this case, the pollutants scattered on the ground ultimately reach the water sources and cause Water pollution, for instance, agriculture (pesticides, fertilizers), construction etc.

Different types of water use require different levels of water purity drinking water require the highest standards of purity whereas water of relatively lower quality is acceptable for other purposes like agriculture, industry, fisheries, wild-life, livestock, recreation (boating, swimming), hydroelectric power, waste disposal etc. Hence, various Standards & Guidelines have been established which specify the Suitability of a particular type of Water according to certain criteria. The Criteria for assessing the Quality of Water are:

Physical Parameters: Color, Odor, Taste, Temperature, Turbidity, etc. These tests generally should precede any other test.

Chemical Parameters: pH, Acidity, Alkalinity, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Concentration of Heavy & toxic metals like Mercury, Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium etc., Inorganic ions like Nitrate, Nitrite etc., and Pesticides etc. The majority of tests conducted on Water fall under this category as these parameters have significant effects on the Quality of Water.

Biological Parameters: Presence & Quantification of various microorganisms. These microorganisms can be Bacteria, Viruses, or Parasites which can cause several diseases & hence pose a threat to human health. Examples include E.coli, Salmonella, Legionella spp., Faecal coliform counts, Vibrio cholerae, Enteroviruses etc.

The Water Testing Lab of CLTSCS Analytical Labs is adequately equipped with the latest sophisticated analytical instruments & a team of competent & experienced laboratory technicians to provide accurate & meaningful testing services for a wide variety of Water samples in strict accordance with various National & International testing Standards & Specifications. Recently, CLSERS has acquired the prized formal recognition from ISO9001: 2008 for Testing and analyzing various types of samples (petroleum products such as fuels and lubricants, water, soil…etc). CLSERS can undertake tests for the Following Types of Water:

Packaged Drinking Water

Natural Mineral Water

Drinking Water

Waste Water

Water for Construction

Water for Processed Food Industry

Feed Water, Boiler Water & Condensate for High Pressure Boilers

Reagent Grade Water

Water for Swimming Pools

Inland Surface Water

Some of the routine tests carried out by CLSERS are as follows:

Physical Parameters

Chemical Parameters

Biological Parameters


Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Coliforms (Total & Faecal)


Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)


Heavy Metals: Lead, Arsenic, Cadmium, Mercury, Chromium, Iron etc

Enterococci Escherichia coli


Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Total Plate Count


Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

Total Dissolved Solids

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Total Suspended Solids

Trihalomethanes (THMs)

Toxicity Tests (Bioassays & LC 50)


Trichloroethylenes (TCEs)

Bacteriological Conditions of Industrial Effluents, Sewage, Trade Wastes, Swimming Pools, Spas etc.


Ammonical Nitrogen

Phenolic Compounds


Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) Studies

Oil & Grease




  • Water & Environment Section:-

Water lab provided with a number of Instruments capable to analyze all type of water it can determining the quality of suitable water for drinking (doing Primary, Secondary tests).

The quality of water to be used for irrigation purposes is determined by its salts content (analysis of water for irrigation).also perform analysis for cooling water ,deposits ,Industrial waste water ,sewage water and resin.

Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS)


Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) is used to analyze heavy metals as well as

Other trace metals in different samples after preparation with a suitable method like digestion and dissolution.

  • Dissolved Oxygen Meter:

Technique of Dissolved Oxygen Meter: The cathode and an anode submersed in an electrolyte. Oxygen enters the sensor through a permeable membrane by diffusion, and is reduced at the cathode, creating a measurable electrical current.

Oxygen level can be measured either as% saturation or as concentration mg/l, also can determine of B.O.D.

  • TOC analyze

This analyzer detects the contaminants which are found in drinking, cooling, semiconductor and water for pharmaceutical use.








For several measuring such ions concentration and total hardness







Turbidity meter:-

For measuring turbidity





PH meter

A pH meter is an electronic instrument used for measuring the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of a liquid (though special probes are sometimes used to measure the pH of semi-solid substances). A typical pH meter consists of a special measuring probe (a glass electrode) connected to an electronic meter that measures and displays the pH reading.









An electrical conductivity meter (EC meter):

Measures the electrical conductivity in a solution. Commonly used in hydroponics, aquaculture and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.







Spectrophotomer :-







1- It is used in the determination of the concentrations of different components in a wide

range of wave length including visible light and ultraviolet ray.

2- It is also used in defining the maximum of the different components

GC ( Gas chromatography



Qualitative and quantitative analysis of aroma concentrates isolated from food

products–volatile oils – perfumes. Analysis of fatty acid esters of edible fats and oils.

HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography)

Applications :

Quantitative and qualitative analysis for the following .

1- Vitamins determination

2- Toxins and contaminants determination

3- Antibiotic and Drug residues determination

4- Sugars determination

5- Harmon's & Food additives determination

6- pesticide residues determination

Aerosol monitoring system

For monitoring an measuring dust or particulate concentration




Is a horizontal or vertical cylinder mainly made of stainless steel.

For sterilizing culture media

It’s Moist heat under pressure ,water boils when atmospheric pressure becomes equal to water pressure. Hot saturated steam will penetrate rapidly the substance to be sterilized.


The machine presented is a medical product (laboratory centrifuge) according to the IVD guideline 98/79/EG.

Is used to separate substance or substance mixtures with a density of max.

Vortex mixer

Is a medical product (laboratory vortex mixer) use to mixing the sample.

Colony counter

A colony counter is an instrument used to count colonies of bacteria or other microorganisms growing on an agar plate.

Laminar fume hood

Defined as a clean cabinet characterized by its own filtered air supply.

is a carefully enclosed bench designed to prevent contamination of biological samples, or any particle sensitive device. Air is drawn through a HEPA filter


is a device used to grow and maintain of course microbiological cultures or cell cultures. The incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside.

Atomic absorption with Graphite Furnace

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) which is one of the commonest instrumental methods with potential for continuous real time analysis for determination of heavy metals in all kind of waste and other aqueous solutions.